Coastal inundation and storm surge

Coastal inundation and storm surge in Te Moanaui Oceania are intensifing due to climate change. Rising sea levels and stronger cyclones and stroms increase flooding risks, particularly in low-lying areas and atolls. These events, as well as ‘island overtopping’, where seawater flows over the island landmass, pose immediate threats to lives, infrastructure, and ecosystems. Saltwater intrusion into freshwater sources compromises long-term water security and agricultural productivity. The following nature-based solutions may be useful to reduce coastal inundation and storm surge.