Reduced freshwater availability/quality

Reduced freshwater availability and declining water quality are significant consequences of climate change in Te Moanaui Oceania. Changing rainfall patterns, including altered distribution and increased drought frequency, impact surface and groundwater sources. This leads to decreased freshwater availability, particularly in island nations reliant on rainfall for their water supply. Rising temperatures exacerbate water stress by increasing evaporation rates and intensifying competition for limited water. The following nature-based solutions may be useful when taking into account reduced freshwater availability and quality.